The European Green Deal includes a commitment to shift the tax burden from labour to pollution and resource use. This study presents a roadmap for such a rebalancing of the tax mix, both at national levels and in an EU context, and assesses the impact of a set of 20 example taxshift measures.
The results indicate that a budget-neutral taxshift is a critical strategy for a green and inclusive recovery. In the scenario, GDP levels in the EU in 2025 are on average 1.6% higher and employment levels are 3.0% higher than business as usual. This means that six million more people are in employment. At the same time, CO2 emissions have fallen by 7.1%.